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  Propaganda during world war 2

In general propaganda means the distribution of information for a special aim. But those information are often wrong or incomplete. In common propaganda means the demoralisation of one?s enemies during wartime or the moralisation of one?s own population. The author always wants the people to support his or her aims for the stabilisation of his or her power. It began in the election campaign of the NSDAP where thousands of posters were printed which promised the reduce of unemployment. Joseph Goebbels organised the election campaign since 1930.

A few weeks after Hitler came to power in January 1933 the ?Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda? (? Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda?, ?Promi?) was founded with Goebbels as its leader. Goebbels said about propaganda ?Die Propaganda hat nur ein Ziel; und zwar heißt dieses Ziel in der Politik immer: Eroberung der Masse?. Under the rule of the NSDAP in Germany the word propaganda got new dimensions. The people always lived in fear of punishment in case of adopting a negative position. As a result of the ?bringing into line? Goebbels had nearly total control of the cultural life in Germany. At first he made sure that all newspapers publishing non-Nazi views were taken over by Nazi companies.

All journalists and writers had to be registered until more than two-third of the press were under Goebbels control. Newspapers where advised each day what they could (not) print. Those who did not follow Goebbels instructions were censored. As well as many book authors who published critical views about the Nazi-ideas. The ?Reichskulturkammergesetz?, which was introduced in September 1933, made this legal. One of Goebbels most important means of propaganda was the ?people?s receiver? (Volksempfänger).

Its technical name was "VE 301 W" which was a synonym for the 30. January 1933, the date when Hitler came to power. The people?s receiver was the first mass medium introduced in Germany. It was a small radio, which made it possible to listen to Hitler?s and Goebbels? speeches in real-time. Each radio company had to produce those radios. As a result of mass production each family could afford one of this receivers.

The number of sold radios, which got the nickname ?Goebbels Schnauze?, increased from 25% of each home in 1933 to 65% in 1941. The radio had only a short range. This made it impossible to listen to foreign radio channels. The people?s receiver allowed many German families to listen to speeches of NSDAP leaders or other propaganda like faked news during wartime about the conditions of the German troops. There were mass demonstrations like the Nuremberg rally, which took place every year. Thousands of soldiers or members of the Hitler Youth carrying Nazi flags with the swastika had to march past Hitler.

With those rallies the NSDAP showed their power and political strength. Goebbels knew that the future of Germany would depend on their children. That?s why on the 1. December 1936 a law called "Gesetz über die Hitler-Jugend" was released which forced every boy and young man to enter the former voluntary Hitler Youth. There the teenager were taught NS paroles and anti-Semitic ideas. Drill was a part of their every day life.

During the war in addition to normal soldiers there were ?Propaganda-Companies? which had the task of coverage of war and psychological warfare for example pamphlet propaganda. Until 1941 the psychological warfare was only their secondary task. In contrast to the coverage of war which suffered from overproduction. During the campaign in the west over 600,000 meters film were produced. When 1943 the propaganda-companies were reorganised its primary task was the psychological warfare. With their pamphlet propaganda they tried to demoralise their enemies.

Slogans like ?Gentlemen prefer Blondes ? but Blondes don?t like Cripples? or ?Where is the Tommy?? (French) should break the resistance of the allied troops. But because of the amount of published films, posters, photos, pamphlets etc. the propaganda in foreign countries and Germany itself lost more and more of their authenticity.

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